History of Gujarat
One of the states in India is Gujarat. Gandhinagar is the capital of Gujarat state and Ahmedabad is the largest city. Ancient major sites like Indus valley Civilization such as Lothal and Dholavira are encompass in this state. There is an important role in the economic of India by the state Gujarat.
The major port of Indian Ocean is located in this state in both modern and ancient history. Lothal, which is one of the first ports in the world, is located in Gujarat.
Our Father of nation, Mohandas Gandhi was born in Gujarat, who led the Independence Movement against British. In India, Gujarat is one of the fastest growing economies.
Origin of Name of Gujarat
The word Gujarat is derived from Gujaratra, which is a land protected by or ruled by a group of people called Gujars. V.A. Smith, a scholar believed that Gujars were the people who immerged from foreign, who are a branch of white Huns. But some other scholars like Baijnah puri believed that they are Indians. The Gujars were sun-worshipers and they have an ancient emblem of the sun.
Gujarat is one of the main centres of Indus valley civilization. Major ancient metropolitan cities like Lothal, Dholavira and Gola Dhoro were situated in Gujarat. In Lothal, the first port was established in India. Dholavira is one of the most prominent and largest ancient archaeological sites in India. Considering all the discoveries, almost 50 Indus valley settlements have been discovered in Gujarat.
Commercial activated of Gujarat enriches the ancient history of the state. From the time period of 1000 BC to 750 BC, there is a clear evidence of trade and commerce with Persian Gulf. Including era of Gujara Pratihara dynasty and Gupta dynasty was a succession of Hindu kingdom. Maitrakas and then the Solankis were the rulers ruled by the regions after Hindu kingdom. The Muslims was emerged into politics in Gujarat from 11th century. Mahmud Ghazni conquest Somnath and thus ended the rule of he Solankis.
The first European arrived in Gujarat was Portugal by acquiring several enclaves like Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Large portion of Gujarat was come under the control of Maratha in 18th century. In 1761 after the Panipat Battle, autonomous government was established keeping nominal authority. Most of the places in Gujarat like Kathiawar, Kutch, northern and eastern Gujarat were divided and made into hundreds of princely states. But in that time several districts were ruled directly by the British officers.
Indian Independence fighters from Gujarat
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Mohanlal Pandya, Ravi Shankar Vyas, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Mahadev Desai, K.M. Munshi, Narhari Parikh, Morarji Desai, Bhulabhai Desai was from Gujarat. All of the freedom fighters play a great role in the independence. Also Pakistan's first Governor- General Mohammed Ali Jinnah's Father was born in Gujarat. Gujarat was a place of some most important and popular revolutions like Salt Sathyagrahas in Kheda, Borsad etc.
But after the Independence and partition of India in 1947, the princely states were grouped and formed into three large places.The Bombay state was enlarged by including Kutch, Saurashtra and part of Hyderabad in 1956. Thus the state formed contains peoples speaking Gujarati and Marathi.
In May 1st, 1960, the Bombay was spitted by the agitation by both Gujarati and Marathi Nationalist.
Thus Gujarat and Maharashtra formed. Then the first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad and in 1970 the capital was moved to Gandhinagar.
Geography of Gujarat
Northwest of border of Gujarat is Pakistan, Southwest of Gujarat is bounded by Arabian Sea, and northeast is covered by state of Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra to the east of Gujarat state. The North of State was known as Saurastra and the South as Lata. Gujarat was also named as Pratichya and Varuna. The western coast is made by the Arabian Sea. Gujarat has an area of 75,687 sq mile. It has a longest cost of 1600km long with 41 ports in which 1 is major port.
Forest and Wild Life in Gujarat
In Gujarat 7.46% of the total geographical area is covered by forest. In Gujarat, the largest area of forest is coming under the district called Dangs. State of Gujarat has 21 wild life sanctuaries and 4 National Parks. Asiatic Lions was only seen in Gujarat in India. Other than Africa, the only places were the natural habitat of lions is in Gujarat. The main part of the Lion habitant of Gujarat is in south west part called Gir Forest National Park.
Leopard is the big cat other than lion seen in Gujarat. It is spread in the mountains of south Gujarat and plains of Saurashtra. Vansda national Park, Gulf of Kutch, Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar and Marine National Park are some other National Parks in Gujarat.
Some of the wild life sanctuaries in Gujarat are Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, Nal sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Kutch Desert Wild Life Sanctuary, Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary, Anjal, Ratanmahal, Ramapura, Purna, Paniya, Balaram-Ambaji, Jambughoda etc.
Major mountain ranges in India can be found in Gujarat. Satpura , Aravalli, Vindhya, Sahyadri are some of the main mountain ranges in Gujarat. The tallest hill in Gujarat is Girnar. The only hill station, of the state is Saputara.
Major Rivers in Gujarat
The biggest river in Gujarat is Narmada and the second biggest is Tapti. But the river Sabarmati covers the longest area of the state. Sardar Sarovar Project is built on the biggest river, Narmada. Its length is around 1312 km and is the major river of India. It is one of the three rivers in India which flow from east to west. The river Mahi and Tapi is flowing from west to east. Rivers like Dhadhar, Meshvo, Banas, Purna, Vatrak, Shedhi, Aji, Vishvamitra are some of the rivers in Gujarat.
Economy of Gujarat
Some largest businesses in India are in Gujarat. Gujarat is the state which produces major agricultural crops. It includes cotton, sugar cane, dates, groundnuts, milk and milk products. Cement and petrol are the Industrial products produced in Gujarat. 17% of the fixed capital investment is from Gujarat. 16% of the Industrial output in India is from Gujarat.
The exporting from India is mainly from Gujarat about 22%. The major place of Soda Ash production (98%) is the state of Gujarat. 80% of the Diamonds is exported from India is from Gujarat. Among the salt production, 80% is from the state of Gujarat. Same way, 25% of textile production, 30% of the Natural gas production, 31% of the cotton production, 37% of the groundnut production, 51% of the chemical productions, 62% of the petrochemical production etc from state of Gujarat.
The words largest ship breaking yard is in the state of Gujarat. In Gas based thermal electricity generation, Gujarat ranks first in India and second in nuclear electricity generation.
Agriculture in Gujarat
The main part of the producer of cotton, groundnuts and tobacco in India is Gujarat. Rice, wheat, Tur, maize, bajra, gram etc is the other major crops produced in Gujarat. The total area of agricultural land in Gujarat is more than half of the land area in the state.
Dairying and Animal husbandry are the other main agriculture in Gujarat state. The largest producer of milk in India is Gujarat. Asia's biggest diary called Amul milk co-operative federation which well known in all over India is in Gujarat. As on the survey done on 2002, 6.09 million tonnes of milk, 2.71 million kilogram of wool and 385 million eggs are produced in Gujarat yearly.
Very nice article. This shows how Gujarat emerges from past to present. Today Gujarat is one the prosperous state of India. Thanks for sharing these wonderful information.